comma before including list

In AP style, omit the comma before the last item in a simple series, such as "Joe, John and Steve." About the Author. Examples of the comma before and, so, yet and or. My understanding is that if the subordinate clause follows the main clause, no comma precedes the conjunction; however, I saw the following sentence in the Q&A and am now confused. The third most oft-visited on this site, this page garnered close to 10,000 hits in the past thirty days. Adjectives are words that modify a noun like "old", "red", "greasy". When there are just two items in a list, a comma … There are some cases where you know you should use a comma – such as when separating items in a list – but there are other times when you might be unsure whether or not a comma … Do you go to the store for “cupcakes, vanilla, and chocolate” or “cupcakes, vanilla and chocolate”? No. First, some courts have held that an item only falls within the preceding noun if it falls within one of the items in the list. If the writer feels that the intended audience of this sentence do not know about the members of G8 countries, he can make it defining by not inserting the comma before "including". There’s a long-running debate over whether it’s proper to include that last comma in a list. Mignon Fogarty . Reputable dictionaries, including Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary and the American Heritage Dictionary, tell us that the verb include is not interchangeable with the verb are. 2. In the first example below, the comma after "butter" is called a serial comma or an Oxford comma.In the US, when there are more than two list items, your readers will expect a comma before the conjunction (in this case, "and") that precedes the last list item. (US) Notes. There are more usages of a comma, for example, how adding or removing comma before and after a name changes the meaning of the sentence — In this Grammar.com article let us understand how to correctly use commas with names. In British English, it is quite unusual to use a comma with and. Comma before the final item in a list. Using a Comma before “And” (and Other Coordinating Conjunctions) in a Sentence. I visited France, Germany, Italy, Britain and Spain. The listing comma is used as a kind of substitute for the word and, or sometimes for or.It occurs in two slightly different circumstances. Well, forget proper. So the list above would run like this: You should set this information off using a comma before and a comma after it: John went for a jog, which took half an hour, before having a long hot shower. Use a comma after the conjunction when it is followed by an interruption. You place a comma before "including" only when the "including" phrase is non-essential, meaning it is just added information and is not necessary to clearly understand the meaning of the sentence. We'll show you how to use conjunctions, clauses, relative pronouns, and the proper way to use a comma after "and" with our comma cheat sheet. The proper definition of the Oxford comma is “a comma used after the penultimate item in a list of three or more items, before ‘and’ or ‘or’.” For example: For example: “Be … When writing a list of items for an academic paper, place a comma between each item in the list, including before the word "and." In the above, the comma before "including" (and the one after "Russia") is purely based on the context.
Each item had to be manually inserted into a line of type. We use commas while combining multiple phrases in one sentence or writing about different items in a list. The thinking is that if the preceding … The semicolon looks like a comma with a period above it, and this can be a good way to remember what it does. If we take the first person first, the format would be like this: Joan Darcy, U.S. A comma comes after every coordinating adjective except for the last adjective. Commas are needed before coordinating conjunctions, after dependent clauses (when they precede independent clauses), and to set off appositives. First, it is used in a list when three or more words, phrases or even complete sentences are joined by the word and or or; we might call this construction an X, Y and Z list: The Three Musketeers were Athos, Porthos and … A semicolon creates more separation between thoughts than a comma does but less than a period does. He went to London for two weeks, and he stayed at an expensive … Comma before including or not? between elements (including before and and or) in a series of three or more items.. the height, width, or depth; in a study by Spencer, Girard, and Singh (2010) to set off a nonessential or nonrestrictive clause, that is, a clause that embellishes a sentence but if removed would leave the grammatical structure and meaning of the sentence intact. The only time you would place a colon after "include" … Should I use a comma between two adjectives? … Comma before or after including? … I love to pet kittens, puppies and rabbits. Because I was late, I had to sit in the back. If the series includes internal commas that necessitate semicolons or uses a conjunction such as "and," include the comma. The American Heritage states that include … Both the Modern Language Association and the American Psychological Association require it. In this case you do need a comma. They should really be called "adnouns" to be consistent … The final comma before the "and" is called the serial comma. Use a comma before the conjunction when the sentence halves can stand alone. The price for the ticket is $15.75 including sales tax. Corps of Engineers Assistant Secretary for Civil Works. Since most … 2018-05-24 16:21 #0 by: Evelina Use a comma before “including” and “such as” when followed by a nonrestrictive, nonessential phrase or clause. Nor should you put a colon there. only include a comma before "since" when the verb in the independent clause that precedes it is negated and this might cause confusion. Before the fists begin to fly, let me say that, in my experience, there is a clear gulf between the two camps regarding the use of the comma before connecting in a series of three or more items. 2.

First, it is together. 5. Comma before including chicago manual of style, serial comma: do or not do. Use a comma after a dependent clause when it comes before the independent clause. Comma before and … Have a bath and wash your entire body including your teeth and nails If you use the word "including," it may help clarify to put a comma BEFORE it, but you still do not need a colon after it. By definition, if we use the word include or including before a list, we are telling the reader that the list is not exhaustive. Here are the two most common uses of the semicolon: 1. Common starter words for introductory clauses that should be followed by a comma include after, although, as, because, if, since, when, while. In English language punctuation, a serial comma, or series comma (also called an Oxford comma or Harvard comma), is a comma placed immediately after the penultimate term (i.e. The comma placed between “jumping” and “and swimming” is an example of an Oxford comma. Writing a book, if I haven’t put you off already, is one of the most rewarding things you can do. The Oxford Comma This section is about commas not semicolons, but it will affect how you punctuate your lists. If the examples are essential to the meaning of … Citrus fruits, such as oranges and grapefruits, are high in vitamin C. We like to plan our vacations around three-day weekends, such as Labor Day. 3. The Listing Comma. It could be excluded as well, resulting in the following: “There are many activities including, but not limited to, running, jumping and swimming.” Keeping the Oxford comma is useful for differentiating the items as three separate examples rather than as two, e.g. All lists in APA Style should include a serial comma—the final comma before the conjunction. The last two items in a list are usually connected by and. If it is … The sections in … My work background includes conservation work, such as prairie restoration and controlled burns. The most basic type of list appears in the running text of a sentence, with each item separated by a comma. Use commas after introductory a) clauses, b) phrases, or c) words that come before the main clause. (GB) I visited France, Germany, Italy, Britain, and Spain. We are having a continuing discussion about the use of a comma before since in this type of sentence: The number was purposely selected, since most people can divide mentally. Just the word including is enough for introducing a list (and a semicolon is never used to introduce a list). Correct comma replacement depends on whether such as introduces an essential or nonessential clause. a. You can safely delete it if you want without losing the context. The band has five members, including a drummer, two guitars, a violin, and a flute. Apr 06 2011 19:28:54 . When to Use a Comma Before 'Because' Commas with Participial Phrases. In that case then it follows the rules for "because" outlined above, i.e. More examples: Everyone survived, including the family dog. Example: While I was eating, the cat scratched at the door. I love to pet kittens, puppies and rabbits. For example: "Germany annexed Austria, Poland, and the Netherlands." Let’s look at … This gets more complex when an item or multiple items in your list already have commas… For example, Each child was given a plush toy, a building block, and a rubber ball. Don’t use a comma before the conjunction when the second clause can’t stand alone. If he feels, the readers know he can set of the phrase within commas. To help separate items in a list, when some of those items already contain commas. She is an inductee in the Podcasting Hall of Fame, and the show … The Oxford comma … What the Dictionaries Tell Us. In section 4.03 of APA 6, the serial comma is clearly required: “between elements (including before and and or) in a series of three or more items.” In fact, APA even requires the serial comma to be included in in-text references: (Smith, Smith, & Jones, 2016). Semicolons . before the coordinating conjunction [usually and or or]) in a series of three or more terms.For example, a list of three countries might be punctuated either as "France, Italy and Spain" (without the serial comma… Sometimes, you might want to include extra information within a sentence that isn’t essential to its meaning. anonymous; Grass hay … If the specific examples aren’t essential to the accuracy of your sentence, then use a comma before such as and after your example, unless the example is at the very end of the sentence. If it is essential, meaning the phrase is necessary to understand the meaning of the sentence, then use no comma. The word and is added before the last noun, which is not followed by a comma. The same rules apply for titles. If the number of page visits is a reliable indicator, this topic—using a comma before and—is on the minds of many people. Nevertheless, some courts have, in two different ways, used the list following a given including or includes to limit the meaning of the word or phrase (usually a noun or noun phrase) preceding the including or includes. A comma comes after each noun in a list. For instance, AP would use the "serial" comma in this sentence: "The school offers courses titled Arts and Entertainment, Geology, History and Human Development, … If we use this second format and then make a list of people, the different people would be separated by a semi-colon (;) and not a comma. A comma should be used after an introductory word to separate this word from the main sentence. Colons can introduce a list, while commas are used to separate items in a list. NOTE: Do not use a comma if the order is reversed (the independent clause comes before the dependent clause), except for cases of extreme contrast. In this example, what's right? Commas indicate a pause or a list in a sentence. 1. We use commas to separate items in a series or list. Mignon Fogarty is the founder of Quick and Dirty Tips and the author of seven books on language, including the New York Times bestseller "Grammar Girl's Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing." The comma makes things clearer, and a recent lawsuit proves that. Have a bath and wash your entire body, including your teeth and nails 2. The comma before such as is correct because the phrase is a nonessential clause. , such as prairie restoration and controlled burns: While I was eating, the readers know can! ) I visited France, Germany, Italy, Britain, and a rubber ball given a plush,... ' commas with Participial phrases haven ’ t put you off already, is one of semicolon! 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As prairie restoration and controlled burns scratched at the door building block, and he stayed an. Before and, '' include the comma before including chicago manual of Style, serial comma: do not... Between thoughts than a period does feels, the format would be like this: Joan,... Thirty days ( and a recent lawsuit proves that London for two,... To London for two weeks, and a semicolon is never used to separate items in your already... The last adjective haven ’ t use a comma before the last,... Work, such as introduces an essential or nonessential clause the number of visits! Or c ) words that come before the conjunction when the second clause can ’ t stand alone background! Like this: Joan Darcy, U.S can introduce a list in a series or list not. Sentence, then use no comma meaning of the phrase is necessary to understand the meaning of sentence. Includes internal commas that necessitate semicolons or uses a conjunction such as prairie restoration and controlled burns word from main... Of those items already contain commas commas are used to separate items in series! To introduce a list independent clause off already, is one of the semicolon looks like a comma before main... Clause when it comes before the last adjective called `` adnouns '' to be consistent … no those already! And rabbits work, such as introduces an essential or nonessential clause, b ) phrases, c. Joan Darcy, U.S take the first person first, it is quite unusual to use comma! And or body, including your teeth and nails 2 those items already contain commas price... Red '', `` red '', `` red '', `` red '', `` red,.
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